What is Pigment in PMU ?
All permanent make up pigments are made of two main ingredients, which are pigment powders and liquid (known as carriers). The powder is added to the carrier, which suspends the pigment powder, enabling the technicians to implant it into the skin.
Pigment powder is combined with the carrier, which changes the texture of pigment powder to liquid form, enabling technicians to implant it to the skin. The powder can be Titanium dioxide, Iron Oxides, Carbon or Lakes.
Titanium Dioxide found in all pigments, regardless of whether they are organic or inorganic. They are naturally occurring inert minerals. They are produced synthetically in a lab to use in pigments. They are added to pigments to increase their brightness and opacity, making them more visible in the skin. In lighter colours, there is usually a larger quantity of Titanium Dioxide. They are extremely long lasting in the skins, then when they are struck with a laser, it can cause a laser-induced reduction of the metallic compounds resulting in it darkening (turning to a grey or blackish colour).
Ion oxides are form of Iron + Oxygen, they are chemically unreactive metallic particles, they contain no carbon, they are insoluble in water
Carbon : a popular ingredient as it has a high colour strength and is durable. Carbon is non metallic, elemental and can dissolve in water.
Lake: A pigment prepared by precipitating a soluble dye onto an insoluble reactive or adsorptive substratum or diluents.
The carriers may be a single substance or a mixture , the duty of the carrier is to keep the pigment evenly distributed in a fluid form, to help the implantation progress to the skin easier. They can also help to kill bacteria, yeasts and fungi which might grow in the pigment and prevent the clumping of the pigment.
Traditional carriers are
Some of the other carriers are witch hazel or rosin.
What is the difference between pigments and tattoo ink?
Ink as in some tattoo inks can be made with industrial chemicals, similar to those for printers’s ink or automobile paint which is harmful to the skin. One positive about this type of ink is that it lasts forever, however there are possible reactions to them such as swelling, cracking, peeling, scarring, photosensitivity and MRI complication. That is the reason why the colour used for cosmetic tattooing on the face should have different ingredients. Those ingredients are controlled by a specialist organisation such as FDA ( Food and Drug administration) in America, which safer but not last forever, that is why it considered semi permanent makeup.
Reference: the article used information in a speech - Finishing touches group.